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Procedures Used for Sample Collection

To cover a wide range of flows, samples were collected at three different times of the year.  This ensured sampling high, normal and low flow conditions.  Because a variety of flow conditions were sampled, collection procedures were adapted for wading or from a bridge.



Photo of water quality collection by wading a stream.

Photo of set up for water quality collection from a bridge.


Photo a sampling device (USGS D77), used to collect water quality samples from bridge


No matter what the stage of the river was when sampled, the same basic collection procedures were always used.  A depth and width integrated sample was taken at each site.  Also, using a multi-probe meter, field parameters, such as pH, specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity, were measured at each site.



                Multi-probe meter which measured pH, water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. 


Multi-probe suspended into the stream from a bridge.   

Immediately after sampling, the water was initially processed on site in a mobile laboratory.  The collected sample, usually around eight liters, was split into six, one liter glass amber bottles.  Four of the bottles were filled with river water that was filtered through a sterile glass fiber filter, and two bottles contained the raw river water.  All samples were immediately preserved on ice.




As soon as possible, samples were shipped via overnight carrier to one of three USGS laboratories for the final analytical steps.

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U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
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Last modified Thursday, April 18, 2002